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数据安全:Lockdown Profile 的多租户权限控制

2017年12月26日
盖国强
1031

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在Oracle Database 12.2 中引入了lockdown profile的新特性,可以用于限制PDB中的某些操作,增强某些操作的安全性。

PDB Lockdown Profiles to Restrict Operations on PDBs Starting with this release, in a multitenant environment, you can use PDB lockdown profiles to restrict functionality available to users in a given PDB.

PDB lockdown profiles enable you to restrict the access the user has to a set of features individually or in a group. This feature is designed to enhance security for situations in which identities are shared among PDBs.

以下通过一个简单的测试来看看这个特性的基本功能。 首先在CDB下创建一个profile,这个Profile将对全局可用:

SQL> connect / as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> CREATE LOCKDOWN PROFILE enmotech;
Lockdown Profile created.

SQL> ALTER LOCKDOWN PROFILE enmotech DISABLE STATEMENT  = ('ALTER SYSTEM');
Lockdown Profile altered.


连接到PDB YHEM,在PDB级别启用lockdown profile :

SQL> connect sys/oracle@yhem as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET PDB_LOCKDOWN = enmotech;
System altered.


测试一下,可以看到所有的ALTER SYSTEM的操作都被禁用了:

SQL> alter system checkpoint;
alter system checkpoint
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01031: insufficient privileges

SQL> alter system set optimizer_mode = first_rows_1;
alter system set optimizer_mode = first_rows_1
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01031: insufficient privileges


LOCKDOWN PROFILE可以限制到非常细粒度的权限,比如以下限制仅仅限制用户执行ARCHIVE LOG和CHECKPOINT操作。

SQL> connect / as sysdba
Connected.

SQL> alter lockdown profile enmotech enable statement = ('ALTER SYSTEM')
 2  clause all except = ('ARCHIVE LOG', 'CHECKPOINT');

Lockdown Profile altered.


现在测试一下,可以看到在PDB上,限制精确的生效,CHECKPOINT操作不允许被执行:

SQL> connect system/oracle@yhem
Connected.
SQL> alter system set optimizer_mode = first_rows_1;
System altered.

SQL> alter system checkpoint;
alter system checkpoint
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01031: insufficient privileges


除了特定的权限,还可以对某些数据库功能特点进行限制,比如调用和执行UTL_HTTP 和 UTL_TCP 包可能是高风险的,那么以下的PROFILE设置可以禁用这些特性:

SQL> alter lockdown profile enmotech
 2     disable feature = ('UTL_HTTP', 'UTL_TCP');
Lockdown profile altered.

SQL> conn system/oracle@yhem
Connected.
SQL> declare
 2    l_request   utl_http.req;
 3    l_response  utl_http.resp;
 4 begin
 5    l_request := utl_http.begin_request('http://www.enmotech.com');
 6    l_response := utl_http.get_response(l_request);
 7 end;
 8/
declare
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-29273: HTTP request failed
ORA-01031: insufficient privileges
ORA-06512: at "SYS.UTL_HTTP", line 380
ORA-06512: at "SYS.UTL_HTTP", line 1127
ORA-06512: at line 5

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